Features for PURK

Share & Bookmark


Consonant Inventories WALS Moderately small
/p t k/ p t k
/f s ʃ χ/ f s c q
/v~ʋ z ʒ~j ʁ/ v z j r
/ɬ/ x
/l/ l
/m n/ m n
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)
/i y u/
/e ø o/
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Moderately low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In fricatives alone
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Other
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular continuants only
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/ and lateral obstruent
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS High and mid
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS Initial
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Fixed stress
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight
Rhythm Types WALS No rhythmic stress
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS Clicks, pharyngeals, and 'th'


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Isolating/concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Monoexponential case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 6-7 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Dependent-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Strongly suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No syncretism
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Two
Masculine and feminine. The femine ending is -o, added to adjectives and pronouns.

fnep – good (masc.)
fnepo – good (fem.)

The distinction is neutralised in the plural:

fneps – good (fem. or masc.)
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic and formal
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
fnem skyl – "a good bird" (masc.)
fneo fla – "a good goat" (fem.)
fnems skyla – "good birds" 
fnes flaa – "good goats"
fneo qozas – "a good stone (fem.)
fnems qozasa – "good stones"
fnem riknals – "a good king" (masc.)
fnems riknalsa – "good king"
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number affixes
splelm – I (masc.)
splelo – I (fem.)
splels – we
splønm – you (sing. masc.)
spløno – you (sing. fem.)
spløns – you (plur.)
splir – he
spliro – she
splirs – they
The Associative Plural WALS Associative same as additive plural
Definite Articles WALS No definite, but indefinite article
Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite word distinct from 'one'
trøsp – the house, the houses, houses
trøsp se‘ej – a house
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS No distance contrast
ympym – "this" or "that" (masc.)
ympyo – "this" or "that" (fem.)
ympys – "these" or "those"
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different inflection
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS In 3rd person + 1st and/or 2nd person
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Mixed
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS 6-7 cases
Nominative (unmarked)
Accusative: -e (only attached to nounn stems ending in a consonant)
Genitive: -(e)n
Dative: -al
Locative: -pent
Ablative: -osk
Instrumental: -yf

qust – "horse"
quste – "the horse" (obj.)
qusten – "of the horse"
qustal – "to the horse"
qustpent – "on the horse"
qustosk – "from the horse"
qustyf – "with the horse" 

klemø – "book" (subj. or obj.)
klemøn – "of the book"
klemøal – "to the book"
klemøpent – "on the book"
klemøosk – "from the book"
klemøyf – "with the book"

splir – "he" 
splire – "him"
spliren – "his"
splireal – "to him"
splirpent – "on him"
splirosk – "from him"
spliryf – "with him"

spliro – "she"
spliro – "her"
spliron – "her" (gen.)
spliroal – "to her"
spliropent – "on her"
spliroosk – "from her"
spliroyf – "with her"

splirs – "they"
splirse – "them"
splirsen – "their"
splirsal – "to them"
splirspent – "on them"
splirosk – "from them"
spliryf – "with them"
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Case suffixes
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
xosemz – "dog"
xosemzen mrilp – "together with the dog"
xosemzyf – "with (using) the dog"
Ordinal Numerals WALS Various
Distributive Numerals WALS Marked by suffix
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS No possessive affixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by suffix
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Mixed
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS No past tense
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS From 'finish', 'already'
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second singular and second plural
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + special negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Maximal system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative present
Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Epistemic Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for both possibility and necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS OVS
Order of Subject and Verb WALS VS
Order of Object and Verb WALS OV
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Postpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Genitive-Noun
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Adjective-Noun
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Noun-Numeral
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Relative clause-Noun
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Degree word-Adjective
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Initial
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Final subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS OV and Postpositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS OV and RelN
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS OV and AdjN
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS VNeg
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS OVNegS

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Nominative - accusative (marked nominative)
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Nominative - accusative (marked nominative)
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Accusative
cøltel – I read
cøltels – we redd
cøltønk – you read (sing.)
cøltønks – you read (plur.)
cøltir – he reads
cøltiro – she reads
cøltirs – they read

skel – I am
skels – we are
skønk – you are (sing.)
skønks – you are (plur.)
skir – he is
skiro – she is
skirs – they are
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Only the A argument
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Identical to reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS Implicit patient
Applicative Constructions WALS Non-benefactive object; only transitive
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Sequential but no purposive
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Compound but no morphological
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative auxiliary verb
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS Negative existential construction
Polar Questions WALS Mixture of previous two types
Predicative Possession WALS Locational
Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Possible
Comparative Constructions WALS Conjoined

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Relative pronoun
Relativization on Obliques WALS Not possible
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Both construction types exist
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Reason Clauses WALS Deranked
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Identical
Numeral Bases WALS Extended body-part system
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 3.5
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 4.5-5.5
Green and Blue WALS Yellow/green/blue
Red and Yellow WALS Yellow/green/blue vs. red
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns
Tea WALS Others


Writing Systems WALS Consonantal
Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks WALS Other or none


Conlang type Artlang


No comments yet